get any bike, and go. go somewhere for a week. then a month. then a year. etc.
you don't need to plan anything, as long as you are just travelling and don't have any notion of an end-point. if you're setting your brain thinking you're heading to russia, then do a bit of planning and sort the visas. otherwise just get on the boat away from this rancid island and go.
have a look at (ie buy) Adventure Cycle-Touring Handbook by Stephen Lord.
1. Visa's, including a general route of country's that I want to go through
normally a lot easier than you think, but worth checking in advance
2. Some type of routine, ie 1 night every 10 in a hotel or real campsite, as you say, complete wild would make some hygiene problems and what not.
if you want routine, get a job. the minimum routine you have to do is wake up, pack, ride, eat, sleep, wake up.... for hygiene, some tar soap and get yourself into the nearest river.
3. How much weight I could carry on a bike,
less is better. you have to tour to know what you can leave behind. rear racks are about 25 kg, front about 10 kg. the more weight the more likely you'll pop spokes. remember carrying food and water weight a lot.
4. Keeping in contact and mapping, I assume it would be hard keeping people updated with my movement, it would limit the possibility of GPS and such, unless I can get an alternator powered by peddling.
GPS? why bother? on a cycle you don't really go fast enough to go that far out of the way. and 'out of the way' might be the best place you go. use maps.
5. Do I have the balls!
dunno, do you?