Motorcycle and Vehicle Technical Terms Glossary
So what's a cardan? Or an easy out? Or a burr? Or lateral runout? Or an oil slinger? Or a zener diode? It's all in here the HU Motorcycle and Vehicle Technical Terms Glossary!
(an alphabetical list of technical terms in some specialized field of knowledge!)
Got any more to add? Please contact me!
This is a permanent work in progress! And you can add to it! Please contact me with your additions.
All those tech words you NEED for vehicle travel, but just aren't in the common phrasebook! Brakes, engine parts and much much more!
"On the road" phrases; Where's a gas station? The engine won't start! Can I park here?
All the "road" phrases you're unlikely to find in the common phrases book for the backpacker!
|alternating current (output from the alternator is AC, same as your household wall socket) - electrical current which constantly reverses direction and polarity.|
arc welding welding method which uses alternating current to provide heat for melting and fusion of metal parts.
a small pump that squirts fuel into throat of carburetor as throttle is opened.
part of electrical system consisting of lights, horn, electrical starter, turn signals, and warning systems.
chemical compounds used to alter characteristics of lubricating oils and fuels.
plastic, fibreglass or metal box mounted between carburetor and air filter. This box provides a volume of still, filtered air for induction into the engine.
use of fins to dissipate heat from part into air.
a device with paper, oiled foam, oiled gauze or wire mesh to prevent entry of dirt or foreign particles into engine through air intake.
finely atomized mist of air and fuel necessary for combustion. This mixture consists of approximately 15 parts air to 1 part fuel (15:1) at cruising speeds.
a small jet in air passage of a carburetor. This jet meters amount of air fed to diffuser in an air-bleed type carburetor.
(AC) electrical current which constantly reverses direction and polarity.
a crankshaft driven electrical generator that produces alternating current which must be rectified to DC current.
an instrument for measuring current flow in electrical circuits.
(amp) electrical unit used to measure flow.
a type of welding which uses an electric arc to produce necessary heat. Melting of base metal and welding rod to join two parts. Also known as electric-arc welding.
portion of a DC generator housing generating coils.
heat resistant material commonly used in brake and clutch lining. It is a known cancer causing substance if inhaled.
tiny particles of fuel mixed with air, making fine mist.
a transmission not using a manually operated clutch.
frame which uses the engine as a structural member, with the frame over the top of the engine.
the clearance between mesh of two gears.
ball and ramp
a clutch release mechanism made of two stamped plates with three or four ramps. As one plate is rotated by clutch cable, balls climb ramps, forcing plates apart. This movement disengages clutch.
an antifriction bearing consisting of inner and outer races separated by hardened steel balls.
battery and coil ignition system
an ignition system with a battery as the source of primary ignition current.
battery-powered electric system
an electrical system having a lead-acid battery as a source of power. The battery is recharged by a charging system using either a generator or alternator.
capacitive discharge ignition system which uses a battery to supply primary ignition current.
a part in which a journal, shaft or pivot turns or moves.
amount of static pressure exerted on a bearing or a set of bearings. Preload is usually adjusted by a threaded collar or shims.
a piece of tubing used between wheel bearing inner races to prevent unwanted bearing preload as the axle is tightened.
a power grinder with round abrasive stones mounted on either end of a special electric motor, for rough grinding of ferrous metals.
bleeder-type needle circuit
air from carburetor air jet is mixed with fuel in body of needle jet making an air-fuel froth. The mixture is then metered into throat of carburetor by jet needle and needle jet.
when piston rings do not effectively seal combustion pressure, allowing hot gases to blow between rings and cylinder wall. This causes overheating of piston and poor performance.
a machine tool used to accurately enlarge a cylinder bore.
bottom dead centre (BDC)
lowest piston position in cylinder.
brake actuator cam
small cam that pivots in brake backing plate and forces brake shoe into brake drum.
part of a disc brake which holds friction pads and encloses disc. As brake is applied, hydraulic fluid forces a piston in calipers toward disc, causing disc to be pinched between brake pads.
a round, flat disc made of steel or cast iron. It is mounted on outside of wheel hub.
a circular ring of cast iron that is part of wheel hub. It provides a place for brake lining to be applied.
special hydraulic tubing made of steel, plastic and reinforced rubber. Hydraulic brake lines must be capable of withstanding extreme pressure without deforming.
a special high friction material made of asbestos and other materials bonded to brake shoes and brake pad plates. Brake lining produces friction and heat when it is forced against brake drum or disc.
small circular or square asbestos inserts in a wheel caliper. They produce friction and heat when forced against the disc.
a cast aluminum, half-circular shoe that holds a bonded brake lining material. When brake is applied, shoe forces lining into brake drum.
brake wear indicator
index grooves, tabs, or reference lines to indicate amount of brake lining or pad wear.
type of welding using a brass alloy filler rod.
a vertical port division in a two-stroke cycle engine cylinder which allows use of a large port without danger of ring or piston catching.
a small, rotating cutter mounted in a rotary grinder and used for metal removal (rotary file). Also, sharp, rough area around a drilled hole.
a carburetor using a flat plate between venturi and intake manifold to regulate airflow through carburetor.
valve which allows fluid to flow around normal path of flow, used in oil filters.
components in valve train that rides on cam lobe.
oval shape of a piston to control and compensate for expansion.
protrusion on a camshaft that causes valve train parts to move as camshaft rotates.
flat plate with slots that engage pins on shift forks. As plate is rotated, slots cause shift forks to move sliding gears or dogs, causing engagement and disengagement of gearbox ratios.
shaft with protruding eccentric lobes. As camshaft rotates, lobes cause reciprocating movement of other valve train parts.
device that mixes and delivers proper amount of air and fuel to engine at a ratio of approximately 15 parts air to 1 part fuel.
cast alloy wheel
a one piece wheel made of cast aluminum or magnesium alloy. This design is more rigid than wire spoked wheel.
an aluminum cylinder block cast around an iron cylinder sleeve.
cast iron cylinder
a one piece cylinder assembly made of cast iron with a machined bore.
a piston made by pouring molten aluminum alloy into a mould of desired shape.
inadequate lubrication caused by air taking place of oil in pump.
CDI voltage amplifier
a device, used in a battery powered capacitive discharge ignition system, that steps up battery voltage to provide high primary ignition voltage.
centre of gravity
point at which any object is perfectly balanced.
clutch engaged by centrifugal force as engine speeds up.
centrifugal oil slinger
cup-shaped centrifugal oil filter mounted to end of camshaft. As oil passes through slinger, centrifugal force removes impurities that are heavier than oil.
use of a chain and sprocket to connect gearbox output shaft to rear wheel.
wear of pins and bushings of a roller or hy-vo chain, causing chain to lengthen.
to bevel an edge of an object or to chamfer edges of port openings in a two-stroke cycle cylinder to prevent piston ring breakage.
a spring-loaded ball or piston valve that allows flow only in one direction.
voltage regulator with solid state electronic devices to regulate charging system output.
a circular clip or snap ring that fits into a groove, used to locate or retain a shaft or component.
an electrical path from a power source, through wire, to components, and back to source.
amount of space between two adjacent parts.
a gearbox with gear ratios spaced close together.
device used to connect and disconnect engine power to gearbox input shaft.
part of clutch assembly containing clutch plates. Primary drive gear engages teeth on outside of clutch basket.
tool to secure clutch basket and clutch hub while loosening or tightening clutch security nut or primary drive gear nut.
part of clutch that engages with plain driven clutch plates. Clutch hub is mounted on gearbox input shaft.
clutch pressure plate
part of a clutch assembly providing pressure against clutch disc or clutch plates.
clutch release mechanism
mechanism that moves clutch pressure plate away from clutch pack, allowing clutch to slip.
thin coating of chrome or iron applied to inside of cylinder by electroplating or wire explosion spray coating.
build-up of a magnetic field while current is flowing through primary windings of coil.
cold soak cleaner
a strong cleaning solvent used to dissolve and remove varnish on carburetor parts.
use of different base colours and coloured tracers on insulation of electrical wire for purpose of identification.
burning of air-fuel mixture in combustion chamber.
area of cylinder head and cylinder above piston where combustion of air-fuel mixture takes place.
same oil is used to lubricate engine, gearbox, and primary drive.
increased pressure caused as volume is reduced. Also, movement of suspension components against spring pressure caused by a force against the wheel.
gauge which measures cranking pressure between piston and upper cylinder.
piston ring designed to seal pressure between piston and upper cylinder.
movement of piston from BDC (bottom dead centre) to TDC (top dead centre) with valves closed, compressing air-fuel mixture for more violent combustion.
when two or more circular parts have same centre line.
two metal sheets separated by an insulator used to store an electrical charge.
a wheel hub (wire wheel) with spoke holes on brake side of wheel at a greater distance from centre of hub than spoke holes on opposite side of hub.
a rod made of steel or aluminum or titanium, usually having an I-beam cross section. It connects piston to crankshaft.
connecting rod kit
a parts kit consisting of connecting rod, crank pin, thrust washers and roller bearings, used in reconditioning of assembled crankshafts.
connecting rod tip
amount of radial (side) play at top of connecting rod. Measurement of rod tip is one way of determining condition of rod big end bearing.
switching device used to start and stop flow of current.
a continuous path for current flow.
conventional rear suspension
suspension used on dual-purpose and road bikes which provides less than 6 in. (152 mm) of suspension travel.
projections on cylinder heads, cylinders and crankcases to increase surface area for more efficient heat dissipation into air.
output sprocket from gearbox. Mounted on output shaft in indirect drive gearbox and on high gear pinion in direct drive gearbox.
frame built of tubing which supports and surrounds engine.
castings that support and contain the crankshaft, primary drive and gearbox.
crankcase leak test
pressure test done to a two-stroke cycle engine to determine if crankcase is properly sealed.
pin or journal on which big-end of connecting rod rides.
extensions at each end of crankshaft to provide a mounting place for main bearings, primary drive or sprocket, and alternator rotor or magneto flywheel.
replacement of worn lower-end components in an assembled crankshaft. This involves pressing crankshaft apart, replacing crankpin, roller bearing, thrust washer, and connecting rod, pressing crankshaft back together and trueing it (assembled crankshaft).
portions of an assembled crankshaft that provides a mounting place for crankpin and crank axles.
movement of electrons through a conductor.
a series of events which take place during a specific interval.
a machined hole in cylinder block for piston, open at both ends.
casting attached to crankcase which contains cylinder bore, cooling fins or water jacket, and provides a means of mounting cylinder head.
diameter of cylinder opening.
bore diameter machined (bored) to accept oversized piston. This renews a worn cylinder.
use of a hone to slightly roughen walls of cylinder. It produces a crosshatch pattern which aids in seating of new rings.
casting that seals top of cylinder and provides a mounting place for spark plug. In four-stroke cycle engine, cylinder head also contains intake and exhaust ports. Both two- and four-stroke cycle engines also have combustion chamber built into cylinder head.
use of a parallel type cylinder hone to size a cylinder after boring. Proper cylinder honing provides proper texture and crosshatch.
cast iron sleeve or tube pressed or cast into cylinder block to provide bore which piston moves in.