Alternative headlight - 36 Watts?
Your indicators, brake lights are only 'on' for short periods of time so reducing the load here is not that effective.
- * may be on all the time the bike is running. Putting a switch here is a very good idea, even if legally in some countries you cannot use it while travelling! You can, in any place, use it while starting the engine - when the battery load is highest and you may need that little bit of extra energy to get going. And in places where you may turn it off while travelling you then have that option.
- * Scooters use a 36 Watt light - some 20 Watts less than the common bike lights of 55/60 Watts. They have a similar base to the H4 globes in common use ... but you'll need to modify something to make them fit (I'd go for the the mounting in the headlight rather than the globe as the next globe would also need modification). This saves you 20 Watts. Of course it won't be as 'bright' as the 55watt globe, but then you could always swap it back if seeing rather than being warm matters? I do not recommend this if running at night, but for use during the day I think it is fine. As any traveller knows, travel at night will take you through the best scenery of your trip when you cannot see it.
Heated vests consume about 60 Watts on full blast, most of the time you only need 20 Watts or less. So get and use an efficient regulator for it.
Same goes for other heating things.
Shunt regulators, as has been said, remove the excess energy from the charging system by dissipating it as heat. This is very efficient when high loads are present. They will get hot with small loads.
Series regulators limit the energy flow through them from the charging system to suit the load. Very efficient for small loads. They will get hot when used with large loads.
Unless you know what you are doing leave your system alone, or have large pockets to pay for your mistakes.
An extremely good idea, particularly if running close to maximum load.