There have been enough threads on various ways of dealing with road penalties in Russia. I won’t go into that here but will try to be constructive with practical information.
So as not to be ripped off and to know what you are ‘negotiating’ it is always helpful to be aware of the Official Penalties. These are laid out annually, occasionally being revised upwards.
The table of Road Penalties for 2012 is laid out in Таблица штрафов ПДД 2012 - все штрафы за нарушения ПДД, ГИБДД, 2012
Sadly only in Russian, but the main moving (ie. not paperwork or vehicle condition) offences travellers would be most likely to encounter would be :-
12.9.p1 Exceeding speed limits by between 10 and 20kph - Warning or 100 Руб
12.9.p2 Exceeding speed limits by between 20 and 40kph - 300 Руб
12.9.p3 Exceeding speed limits by between 40 and 60kph – 1,000 to 1,500 Руб
12.9.p4 Exceeding speed limits by more than 60kph – 2,000 to 2,500 Руб or disqualification for 4-6 months, suspension of Licence
12.12 Continuing despite a stop signal of a traffic light or traffic police officer – 700 Руб
12.16.p1 Ignoring a road sign or road marking other than specified in other parts of the Code – 300 Руб
12.16.p2 Turning left despite a road sign or road marking - 1,000 to 1,500 Руб
And if you like a
12.8.p1 Driving with any alcohol – Disqualification for 18-24 months, medical checks, suspension of licence and detention of vehicle
I will try to look up the penalty of other offences that may concern anyone.